clinical chemistry

This service brings together a large number of biochemical analyzes consisting of measuring molecules contained in different physiological fluids (blood, urine, puncture fluid). Most of the time, it is necessary for the patient to be fasting during the sampling and the results are available in a few hours, or even in a few minutes for urgent parameters (heart problem for example).

The results of these analyzes are fundamental for the diagnosis and monitoring of many pathologies such as diabetes and dyslipidemia.

These measurements require the use of several different techniques such as  :

  • Colorimetry

  • Enzymology

  • Direct potentiometry

  • Turbidimetry

  • Chromatography

  • Mass spectrometry

 

Hematology

This service is divided into three sectors

1 - Cellular hematology where all the routine analyzes are carried out such as hemograms (or blood formula), blood smears and the more specialized analyzes necessary for the monitoring of hemopathies  : myelogram, immunophenotyping, molecular biology. In particular, we use flow cytometry for perfect identification of the different populations of blood cells. Our skills in cytology also include blood parasitology with, in particular, the search for malaria.

2 - Hemostasis where we carry out specialized analyzes for the exploration of thrombotic and hemorrhagic pathologies.

This sector concerns routine analyzes such as the monitoring of anti-coagulant treatments, as well as special analyzes such as pathologies of hemostasis with a hemorrhagic or thrombotic risk.

3 - I mmunohematology where the following erythrocyte immunohematology analyzes are carried out  :

  • Blood grouping (ABO-RH1 grouping and RH-KEL1 phenotyping)

  • The direct antiglobulin test

  • The search for anti-erythrocyte antibodies (RAI)

Blood grouping is performed in a proven or potential pre-transfusion context or in a pre-nuptial, pre- or perinatal context. Following a blood grouping we edit a blood group card for the patient.

All the analyzes are carried out using the reference technique by gel filtration.

 

Immunology

Immunology generally explores the body's defenses against what is foreign to it (non-self) and tolerance towards its own constituents (self). It is a very vast field that we articulate around three divisions.

 

1- Allergology

Our bodies are in daily contact with food, respiratory or contact allergens which can potentially trigger very violent hypersensitivity reactions. Thanks to tests carried out on the serum of patients, the laboratory can identify the allergens (pollen, peanut for example) which are at the origin of these reactions.

 

2- Autoimmunity

It is an auto-aggression of our immune system against our own constituents. The incidence of these pathologies has greatly increased in recent years in Western countries.  : 10% of the population is concerned. Some of his illnesses are organ specific, such as Celiac disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Others are non-specific and are said to be systematic because they affect the whole body, such as connectivitis or vasculitis. Techniques such as immunofluorescence make it possible to highlight the existence of these dysfunctions and to ensure the monitoring of the treatments put in place.

3 - Immune status

It is a question of knowing the state of the immune system at a given moment, a bit like an electrocardiogram for the heart. To do this, we use very sophisticated techniques such as flow cytometry, capillary electrophoresis or in vitro lymphocyte stimulation. Overall the immune system may be at fault  : it no longer protects us enough. On the contrary, it can function in excess, particularly in the case of monoclonal pathology. The biologist's comments are very important in this type of examination.

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Microbiology

Microbiology brings together all the disciplines (bacteriology, mycology, virology and parasitology) which study microscopic organisms. It is organized around four sectors  :

1- Infectious serology

These are tests carried out on the patient's blood and which allow the diagnosis  :

  • viral infections (hepatitis, HIV, measles, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr)

  • bacterial infections (syphilis, Lyme, brucellosis)

  • parasitic infections (toxoplasmosis)

 

2-  Bacteriology, mycology and parasitology

The laboratory cultures the various body fluids and secretions on appropriate media to identify the bacterial or fungal agent(s) responsible for the infection. After identification, we perform an antibiogram or an antifungigram to target the most effective molecule to treat the infection.

Parasitology consists of directly highlighting the presence of parasites in patient samples through rigorous microscopic examination. This research can be done on stools, urine, biological fluids, blood but also other tissues.

3 - Molecular Biology

Microbiology has been undergoing a revolution for several years thanks to nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAAT). Each living being has a unique signature thanks to its genetic material, the support of which is either DNA or RNA. Molecular biology makes it possible to search in a sample for nucleic acid sequences specific to each species of bacteria, virus, fungi or parasites.

This technique is very sensitive  : it allows the detection of only a few microorganisms. It is also very specific and allows precise identification of germs. In addition, recent advances in the implementation of this technique, have made it simpler and faster  : the results are obtained in a few hours. On the other hand, this technique does not make it possible to specify whether the microorganisms are viable or to test an antibiotic, for example.

4 - Hygiene