Medical analysis Microbiology
Microbiology brings together all the disciplines (bacteriology, mycology, virology and parasitology) which study microscopic organisms. It is organized around four sectors :
1- Infectious serology
These are tests carried out on the patient's blood and which allow the diagnosis :
viral infections (hepatitis, HIV, measles, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr)
bacterial infections (syphilis, Lyme, brucellosis)
parasitic infections (toxoplasmosis)
2- Bacteriology, mycology and parasitology
The laboratory cultures the various body fluids and secretions on appropriate media to identify the bacterial or fungal agent(s) responsible for the infection. After identification, we perform an antibiogram or an antifungigram to target the most effective molecule to treat the infection.
Parasitology consists of directly highlighting the presence of parasites in patient samples through rigorous microscopic examination. This research can be done on stools, urine, biological fluids, blood but also other tissues.
3 - Molecular Biology
Microbiology has been undergoing a revolution for several years thanks to nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAAT). Each living being has a unique signature thanks to its genetic material, the support of which is either DNA or RNA. Molecular biology makes it possible to search in a sample for nucleic acid sequences specific to each species of bacteria, virus, fungi or parasites.
This technique is very sensitive : it allows the detection of only a few microorganisms. It is also very specific and allows precise identification of germs. In addition, recent advances in the implementation of this technique, have made it simpler and faster : the results are obtained in a few hours. On the other hand, this technique does not make it possible to specify whether the microorganisms are viable or to test an antibiotic, for example.
4 - Hygiene
Two main areas are concerned. Agri-food on the one hand and hospital hygiene on the other. Bacteriological analyzes of foodstuffs and the working environment are essential to guarantee food safety for consumers. Molecular biology is still very little used although it provides reliable and rapid results.
Hospital hygiene consists in controlling the level of sterility of the equipment used in a medical environment in order to prevent nosocomial infections. Molecular biology now allows us to provide a very high level of germ detection as well as a very short response time allowing a more rational use of medical equipment and thus helping to reduce the costs of medicine.